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2 August 25, 2023


Editorial

1. Jacob Owusu Sarfo
Artificial Intelligence Chatbot – ChatGPT and High-Tech Plagiarism Concerns in a Digital Age: Is Detection Possible?

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2023. 10(2): 55-58.

Abstract:
The digital age of the 21st Century has brought an ascent of artificial intelligence technology used in various sectors. The growth and influence of artificial intelligence technology and tools on education and academic publishing have become an important topic recently. With the latest developments in artificial intelligence chatbots, detecting high-tech plagiarism and ensuring academic integrity in scholarly writing has become a worry with the educational and scientific publishing community. In this editorial, I briefly engaged one of the most popular artificial intelligence chatbots, ChatGPT, to write a paragraph with the prompt – “Write an original paragraph introducing High-Tech Plagiarism and add in-text citations and a main reference list in APA.” To this end, it generated a text with 235 Words and 1,565 Characters. Subsequently, I submitted the text to Turnitin and obtained a Similarity Index of 0 % and an artificial intelligence percentage of --%. Additionally, I solicited ChatGPT to authenticate if the paragraph was produced by itself. It confirmed with the feedback, “Yes, the paragraph introducing “High-Tech Plagiarism” and the associated in-text citations and references were generated by ChatGPT.” This conversation and further checks affirm the findings of previous studies that ChatGPT can produce sophisticated textual outputs that can slip undetected by plagiarism detection tools like Turnitin. Implications are discussed in the paper.



Articles

2. Elizabeth Mana Akpakli, Alvin Jeffrey Munsamy
Visual Impairment among Public School Children in the Biadan and Kato Circuits in the Berekum Municipality, Bono Region, Ghana

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2023. 10(2): 59-67.

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI) among primary school children in the Biadan and Kato circuits in the Berekum Municipality, Bono Region, Ghana. A cross-sectional and a two-stage random sampling technique was employed to recruit 299 study participants. Visual acuity, retinoscopy, examination of the anterior segment, media and fundus were conducted on each participant. A modified refractive error survey in children (RESC) protocol was used in collecting data. A presenting visual acuity of ≤ 6/12 in the better eye was diagnosed as having VI with a cause. Prevalence was estimated, and binary logistic regression was used to determine the strength of the association between visual impairment and independent variables at a 95 % confidence interval. Two hundred and ninety-five (295) children with a mean age of 10.08 ± 2.18 years were able to go through all examinations. The prevalence of VI was 8.14 %. Twenty-four children were visually impaired, of whom 17 (70.83 %) were females and 7 (29.17 %) were males. Refractive error was the cause in 67 % of visually impaired children, cataracts in 8 %, and amblyopia in 4 %. Age was found to be associated with VI (OR=0.77; 95 % CI:0.63-0.95), while gender showed no association. Uncorrected refractive error is a common cause of VI among school children in the Biadan and Kato circuits. Age was negatively associated with visual impairment, suggesting the vulnerability of younger school children. Early detection and provision of affordable eye health services may help curb preventable VI.



3. Yaqin Fan
Instructional Design to Cultivate Expert Learners Using Universal Design for Learning: An Overview

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2023. 10(2): 68-79.

Abstract:
An expert learner is one who is knowledgeable about how learning happens. Mastering the learning method and becoming a master of learning, rather than passively accepting it, is essential for 21st-century innovative talent. Universal Design for Learning aims to establish learning objectives, tool support, material content and assessment methods appropriate for individual needs at the beginning of curriculum design, thus eliminating learning barriers for each learner as far as possible and ultimately achieving the goal of expert learners. However, there are still many problems in applying the universal learning design framework. For example, applied research rarely points out how teaching interventions correspond to Universal Design for Learning principles. Based on the framework of Universal Design for Learning, combined with the understanding of expert learners, this study systematically designs teaching cases to provide a reference for practical applications of Universal Design for Learning and the cultivation of individuals with needs.



4. Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, Martin Obeng, Isaac Boamah
Spirit World and Wealth Creation: Theological Reflections on Pastoral Care for Sakawa Victims at the Patmos Prayer and Retreat Center, Ghana

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2023. 10(2): 80-92.

Abstract:
The study was structured to understand internet fraud cult practices, popularly called sakawa among young people in Ghana, with a particular focus on pastoral care offered at the Patmos Prayer and Retreat Centre, Akropong. The study relied mainly on the use of qualitative research methods. The purposive sampling technique was used to select all the respondents: pastoral caregivers and a former sakawa victim. Content analysis was used to analyse the data collected from the respondents. The study found that sakawa generally involves engagement in occultic practices for wealth, influence, power, fame and favour. The root cause of involvement in Sakawa is the insatiable desire or quest for wealth. Most of the victims are normally lured in by their peers and friends. As a result of unemployment, financial constraints are also a major cause of involvement in sakawa. Victims make certain sacrifices to become partakers of the ‘blessings’ of sakawa. There are dire spiritual consequences for breaching sakawa instructions. Participants of sakawa only seek help when they realise they are in danger or when it turns out that they cannot meet certain demands being placed on them. Post-deliverance counselling for victims of sakawa is the only way their faith in Christ can be sustained. These activities must include referrals to other specialists to seek medical, psychological, vocational and financial assistance. The study recommends that Churches educate their young people to use the internet and other modern technology for godly purposes.



5. Munyaradzi Chirove, Ijeoma C. Ogbonnaya
Secondary School Learners’ Online Learning Experiences During COVID-19 Lockdown

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2023. 10(2): 93-104.

Abstract:
This study investigated secondary school learners’ experiences and perceptions of online learning during COVID-19. A convenient sample of 69 learners participated in the study. The data was collected with the aid of a questionnaire. Thematic analysis was applied to open-ended responses. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were calculated on both closed- and open responses with the aid of SPSS software. The paper exploits the Community of Inquiry framework on classifying learners’ online learning experiences. It was discovered that learners had both positive and negative experiences in the social, cognitive, and teaching dimensions of online learning. They experienced greater online learning challenges in the social dimension than in other dimensions. The teaching dimension contributed most to learners’ enjoyment of online learning, while the least enjoyment was contributed by social presence. They approached online learning with varied perceptions that could be classified into negative, positive, and very positive perceptions. Moreover, their perceptions of online learning could be classified as positive.



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