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3 December 30, 2021


1. Jacob Owusu Sarfo, Timothy Pritchard Debrah, Newton Isaac Gbordzoe, William Twum Afful, Paul Obeng
Qualitative Research Designs, Sample Size and Saturation: Is Enough Always Enough?

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2021. 8(3): 60-65.

Abstract Qualitative research is currently growing in acceptance, especially within the health research scope. Notwithstanding this positive trend, issues about the adequacy of sample size have been a contention among qualitative and quantitative-based researchers. Our paper seeks to address some of the issues facing popular qualitative designs in human research with this backdrop. Our article explains the five key qualitative designs (case study, narrative inquiry, ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory). Based on the existing studies, we reported their respective sample size ranges that supported their data adequacy points. Our paper posits that sample size concerns for qualitative designs revolve around their extensiveness and appropriateness. Therefore, qualitative researchers’ judgement for data adequacy for a particular method should not only rely on data saturation or a rule-of-thumb. Instead, they should also be guided by their research goals, sampling approach, and research participants. Furthermore, we recommend that qualitative researchers always verify the quality of data saturation by conducting additional interviews and be more open in reporting their selected methodologies.

2. Abel Ebiega Enokela
COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Influence on Nigeria’s Education: A Review

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2021. 8(3): 66-69.

The pandemic took the whole world by surprise and has caused considerable havoc in every area of human endeavour. The paper traced the origin of COVID-19 from Wuhan province in China to Nigeria. The pandemic generated a lot of adverse effects in the country by bringing untold hardships on the educational, economic, social, and psychological lives of the people. However, the emphasis of this paper is on the effects of the pandemic on education. This paper presents a review of the impact of COVID-19 on Nigeria’s education. To this end, the author explored the educational and learning concepts with recommendations for future adjustments. The study noted that since the Federal Government of Nigeria announced the closure of its 104 Unity Schools on 26th March, 2020, to check the spread of the coronavirus, all other schools, including higher institutions of learning, were also shut down. This closure order, coupled with poverty, negatively affects students’ learning. School counsellors in Nigeria must reach out to students to assist in managing their emotional maladjustment and develop the resilience to cope with their studies despite the challenges of the pandemic in the education space. Additionally, access to virtual learning opportunities ought to be provided by the state and other stakeholders in education to support academic activities during the pandemic. Also, the government must ensure adequate post-lockdown plans to assist students in returning to everyday life gradually.

3. Jon Oscar Gary
Good Trouble – Protest Utilization of Black Teen and Adult Women’s Technical Capital

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2021. 8(3): 70-79.

This paper aims to extend the researcher’s initial findings of information and communication technology (ICTs) of a decade ago, with current cultural and technical capital as a framework for considering alternative approaches of empowering Black Women as our next technology leaders through current social justice movements. This study focused on protest movements led by three Black women; leading groups of different ages and social classes (most notably Black Lives Matter), and their frameworks in organizing protests. The analytics used were website traffic statistics, demonstration participant numbers, and similar dominant themes revealed between all three movements. In times past, these Black women’s ideas may have only been exchanged in spaces such as in family food-way meal preparation and health needs. Combined with current technological advances, these frameworks are overlapping into designing external performance spaces with designs by young Black girls in k-12 settings. The researcher claims that the deficit model provided by digital divide research phenomenologically captured the structure Black women efficiently used to articulate cultural capital and technology frameworks. These frameworks helped in organizing the George Floyd influenced protest marches during the challenging time of the COVID-19 pandemic.

4. Smileth Ncumisa Mxotswa, Symphorosa Rembe, Bellita Banda Chitsamatanga
Reflections by Parents on the Strategies used to Implement Measures for the Prevention and Management of Learner Pregnancy Policy in Secondary Schools in Eastern Cape Province

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2021. 8(3): 80-87.

Teenage pregnancy in South Africa remains heavily present despite implementing policy on Measures for the Prevention and Management of Learner Pregnancy in Schools. Anchored on a qualitative approach, using semi-structured, focus group interviews and document analysis as data collection techniques, the study used a sample size of 21 participants from three Secondary Schools as case studies. Data were analysed thematically following the inductive sequence of thematic analysis. The study results explain the following paradox: regardless of the stated strategies, schools under research used non-inclusive strategies to implement the policy. These tended to side-line the elderly and educationally challenged parents. Parents were not conversant with the policy and felt the strategies were non-beneficial because of their non-involvement during the formulation and the implementation processes. Results of the study provide evidence for a need to enhance ownership of the policy through different capacity building programmes which solely targeted parents.

5. Mbusiseni Celimpilo Dube, Chinaza Uleanya, Dumsani Wilfred Mncube
Student Teachers’ Preparedness for Classroom Interaction During Teaching Practice: University of Zululand Supervisors’ Perspectives

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2021. 8(3): 88-94.

Classroom interaction during teaching practice is the crucial aspect that shapes schools’ teaching and learning enterprise. Student teachers must develop their lesson plan guided by classroom interaction as one of the teaching styles similar to those observed from mentors. This exploratory case study was underpinned by a qualitative approach to better understand their experiences and context. The sample consisted of university supervisors who were selected from the Faculty of Education at the University of Zululand, South Africa. Using thematic analysis, narrative reflections, and one-on-one structured interviews with 17 university supervisors were analysed. Findings revealed that most student teachers failed to integrate classroom interaction when teaching, while some relied on question and answer method to implement classroom interaction. This study recommends that students first be exposed to laboratory simulated lessons capable of helping them acclimatise to classroom interaction dynamics. Also, student teachers should be introduced to more dynamics of the question and answer teaching method.

6. Kingsley Chinaza Nwosu, Willem Petrus Wahl, Emmanuel Nkemakolam Okwuduba, Chioma Ogu
Sources of Academic Stress and Coping Strategies of Sandwich Students in a Nigerian University: A Quantitative Study of a Minority Student Population

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 2021. 8(3): 95-107.

Though lifelong education has been emphasised in current literature, studies focusing on the wellbeing of sandwich students in Nigeria have been scarce. Our study set out to identify sandwich students’ academic stressors and how they cope with these stressors. The quantitative cross-sectional survey research design was applied in our study. Using a convenience sampling technique, 164 sandwich students participated in the study. Our findings showed, among others, that students perceived overcrowded hostels, congested lecture schedules, time pressure to cover the course before exams, and inconsistent lecturing timetables to be the most significant stressors of their programme. Students had higher mean scores in approach and social support coping strategies than in an avoidance coping strategy. Also, gender, year of study, and marital status were not significant factors in students’ adoption of coping strategies except in social support coping, where marital status was a significant factor. Our findings show that sandwich students face some challenges that result in academic stress and are inclined to adopt mostly task-based strategies to cope with academic stress. Implications of the findings were highlighted.

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