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1. (in 1 part) October 24, 2014

1. Daniel Adjei, Jacob Owusu Sarfo, Michael Asiedu
Predictors of Contraceptive Use in Ghana: Role of Religion, Region of Residence, Ethnicity and Education

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2014, Vol.(1), Is. 1, pp. 3-8.

Effective contraceptive use prevents most reproductive health challenges. The aim of this study is to identify the demographic predictors of contraceptive usage in Ghana. Using a logistic regression analysis, a sample size of 4916 women of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) 2008 were selected. Results showed that religion is the most important predictor among the demographic factors. Ethnicity of the women, level of education and region of residence were also found to be statistically significantly. Contraceptive health promotion should be intensified as the best option for preventing unintended pregnancies in the respective variables.

2. William Wilberforce Amoah, Augustina Amoah, Alexander Atiogbe, Jacob Owusu Sarfo
Survival Outside Home: Sexual Behaviour of Homeless and Runaway Young Adults in Ghana

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2014, Vol.(1), Is. 1, pp. 9-14.

Although homeless young adults are often seen on the streets of Ghana, little research had examined the nature of sexual behaviour among these homeless and runaway young adults. Due to the culturally sensitive nature of such studies in the Ghanaian setting, only fifty (50) respondents agreed to participate in the study. A thirty–five (35) item questionnaire, comprising of twenty-eight (28) closed-ended and seven (7) open-ended questions was used for data collection. The findings indicated poverty, inability of parents to cater for the young adult’s needs, peer pressure and lack of parental acceptance as the main causes of homelessness. Consequently, the findings also showed a trend of school dropout, teenage pregnancy and use of illicit drugs as effects of homelessness. These findings have implications for future studies, policy reform and care for homeless young adult.

3. Ethel Akpene Atefoe, Nuworza Kugbey
Social Relationships among Women in Ghana: “A Blessing” or “A Curse” to their Psychological Well-being?

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2014, Vol.(1), Is. 1, pp. 15-19.

The study seeks to find out the impact of social relationships on the psychological well-being of women in Ghana. A total of two hundred (N=200) women from diverse socio-economic background living in Accra at the time of data collection were conveniently and purposively sampled for the study. Ninety-two (46%) of the participants had a history of various mental illnesses and were reporting for review at the Accra psychiatric and Pantang hospitals. One hundred and eight (54%) had no history of mental illness and reside or work in Adenta, Madina and Legon communities. The psychological well-being sub scale of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38) was used to assess psychological well-being of the participants. Social support and social negativity were assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Social negativity Questionnaire respectively (SNQ). Results from Pearson Product Moment Correlation revealed a non-significant relationship between Perceived social support and psychological well-being, but social negativity had a significant negative relationship with psychological well-being. History of mental illness did not make any significant difference in participants’ level of perceived social support and social negativity.

4. Susanna D. Bagdasaryan
The Soviet State Social Policy in the Sphere of Development of the Material Culture of the Southern Russian Peasants in the 1920-ies

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2014, Vol.(1), Is. 1, pp. 20-25.

This article discusses the problems of formation of the Soviet state social policy transformations in material culture of the southern Russian peasants in the 1920-ies. The necessity of studying the Soviet state social policy in Russia in the period of 1920-ies the historical aspect is determined by several factors. First, in the study of Russian history of the XX century, one of the main directions of national historiography was and remains the study of social problems at various stages of its development. In this regard, relevant is the consideration of the main challenges for social development at country and regional level. Secondly, in the formation of a new concept of social development of the country increases the need to adequate understanding of the role and importance of the Soviet state in the modernization of Russian society. One of the fundamental principles of state social policy is the principle of state responsibility for creating the conditions necessary for the development of society and the individual. In this regard, special scientific and practical interest becomes the problem of the essence of social policy in different historical periods, especially in the 1920-ies the history of the Soviet state, when it formed the Soviet system. In the analysed time clearly showed different approaches to solving social problems: in the framework of the state ideology and assumptions in Economics elements of private property (1921-1929).

5. Adwoa Acheampomaa Boateng, Andrew Bissue Arhin, Valarie Afful
International Financial Reporting Standard’s (IFRS) Adoption in Ghana: Rationale, Benefits and Challenges

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2014, Vol.(1), Is. 1, pp. 26-32.

The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) was adopted by Ghana in 2007. The study assessed eighteen (18) professional accountants from listed firms on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE), to measure the benefits and challenges of IFRS. The study revealed that IFRS improved the access of local companies to international markets. It was also observed that the local firms gained more credibility, transparency, acceptance and consolidation following its adoption. However, most respondents believed that decreasing information cost, competitive leading edge, and integration of accounting Information Technology system were not major benefits as proposed by literature. Nonetheless, some of these local companies after the migration faced challenges like coping with the sophistication of the new standard, lack of qualified personnel, and additional operational cost. Nevertheless, most of the respondents disagreed with the proposition that IFRS had a negative impact on their firms’ balance of retained earnings.

6. Alexander Fedorov
Positive Image of the USSR and Soviet Characters in American Films in 1943–1945

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2014, Vol.(1), Is. 1, pp. 33-36.

In the article the author performs a hermeneutic analysis of cultural context, i.e. investigation of media texts interpretation, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the agency / author of a media text and the audience, on specific examples of positive image of the USSR and soviet characters in American films in 1943-1945. The author bears in mind that the hermeneutic analysis of a media text comprehension involves a comparison with a historical, cultural tradition and reality; insight into its logic; comparison of media images in historical and cultural contexts combined with the historical, hermeneutical analyses of the structural, plot, ethical, ideological and iconographic / visual analyses of media stereotypes and media text characters. The analysis of these media texts, in the author's opinion, is especially important for media education of future historians, culture experts, art critics, social scientists, philologists, psychologists and teachers.

7. Jacob Owusu Sarfo
Role of Clinical Neuropsychologists in the Evaluation and Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Ghana: A Position Statement

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2014, Vol.(1), Is. 1, pp. 37-40.

Ghana’s Ministry of Health is gradually improving the state of mental health among patients with biomedical conditions. Nonetheless, many recent studies have showed that some chronic medical conditions present cognitive deficits that need specialist evaluation and care. The aim of this paper is to provide a summary analysis regarding the current need for neuropsychologists in Ghana’s diabetes care. The rationale is to move for a paradigm shift with regards to the current state of diabetes care in Ghana. Thus, it advocates for policy reform in the management of DM and the inclusion of neuropsychologists among Ghana’s existing structure for diabetes care.

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